APEH book quiz 19

How did the National Convention “revolutionize” space and time? It introduced a new calendar and metric system based on reason and revolutionary principle
How did Emperor Joseph II’s Enlightenment-inspired reforms ignite the Belgian independence movement? Joseph’s reorganization of the government eliminated offices belonging to nobles and lawyers, and his anti-Catholic measures offended the Catholic population, galvanizing resistance
When Louis fired Jacques Necker, his finance minister, many people believed the kin intended to dismiss the National Assembly and end all reforms
What was the cause of France’s fiscal crisis in the late 1780s? A mounting deficit stemming from France’s support of the Americas in the American War of Independence and compounded by its inadequate tax system
German states reacted to the French Revolution with an artistic and intellectual revival that was linked to anti-French nationalism stirred by distrust of France’s advancing armie
Who were the sans-culottes? Members of the urban working classes who wore long trousers rather than the knee breeches of the upper classes
As France’s revolutionary armies won victories across the European continent, what was the French government’s policy toward the newly “liberated” lands It created semi-independent “sister republics” that were modeled on the new French republic
What was the role of the twelve-member Committee of Public Safety, created in 1793? To set the course for government and the war and manage the machinery of the Terror
The deputies of the Third Estate, one of the three estates that made up the Estates General, represented which segment of France’s population? Peasants and the urban middle and lower classes
In an attempt to appease the devout rural populace, how did the Committee of Public Safety institute an alternative to its campaign of de-Christianization? It replaced the secular Cult of Reason with the deistic Cult of the Supreme Being
Why did France’s entry into war with Austria in 1792 have an immediate radicalizing effect on the Revolution? When the French armies proved dreadfully unprepared for battle, the authority of the Assembly was challenged, and angry crowds instigated the Second Revolutio
Which of the following was an action taken by the French government in 1787 that seemed to show openness to political reform The king granted civil rights to Protestants for the first time since the Edict of Nantes was revoked
In the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, the National Assembly promised to recognize the essential political and civil rights of the people regardless of social distinctions
What was the significance of the event known as “the flight to Varennes”? It demonstrated to the French public that Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette were traitors to the revolution, as the royal family had attempted to flee the country and gather resistance
What issue inspired the dispute in the French National Assembly between the Girondins and the Mountain? The Mountain believed the king, Louis XVI, should be executed for treason, while the Girondins argued that he should be given clemency or exile
The Directory regime, which came to power in 1795 after the fall of Robespierre, was known for its tenuous hold on power and the more relaxed atmosphere it supported within French society after the oppressive years of the Terror
The Great Fear is the term historians use to describe the panic of peasants who suspected an aristocratic conspiracy when unemployment and crop failures drove numerous beggars and vagrants to wander the countryside
Why did Robespierre believe terror was a necessary measure for the success of the Revolution? He argued that the suppression of dissent and severe measures were necessary to ensure democracy and keep enemies from undermining the goals of the Revolution
Why did several thousand Parisian women march to the palace at Versailles on October 5, 1789
How did most European elites react to the French Revolution? They were alarmed and even enraged by the abolition of monarchy and nobility and the encouragement of popular participation in politics
What country disappeared from the map of Europe after Russia divided its territory with Austria and Prussia in 1795? Poland
The fall from grace of Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety came about when Robespierre began to order the execution of members of the Convention itself
Why did Charlotte Corday assassinate Jean-Paul Marat in July 1793
What did the deputies to the National Assembly declare in the “tennis court oath” of June 20, 1789? That they would not disband until they had given France a binding constitution
As a reward for his efforts in fighting off the Spanish armies, the French appointed Toussaint L’Ouverture, a former slave, governor of St. Domingue. Which of the following is also true of Toussaint L’Ouverture? He later died in a French prison after his arrest by Napoleon’s army
The Atlantic revolutions were the result of what prevailing trends in European history? Long-term prosperity and high expectations, created in part by the spread of the Enlightenment
Leading Enlightenment political theorists Montesquieu and Rousseau argued that republics suited only small countries, not large ones like France or Austria
Who was known as the “incorruptible” leader of the Committee of Public Safety? Maximilien Robespierre
The Thermidorian Reaction refers to the successful efforts of anti-Jacobins in France to roll back the Terror after the death of Robespierre
After passing the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, what was the next step the National Assembly took to curtail religious authority? They required all clergy to swear an oath of allegiance to the Civil Constitution
Between 1788 and 1791, how did the Polish Patriots attempt reform in Poland They enacted a new constitution that gave townspeople limited political rights and hinted at possible Jewish emancipation
How did the National Assembly attempt to reform the Catholic church in France? They outlawed monastic vows, confiscated all the church’s property, and set up a system in which priests and bishops were elected locally and paid by the state
When the Estates General met in 1789, what did their first decision concern? The contentious issue of voting procedure
Which of the following was an important catalyst for the Dutch Patriot revolt in 1787? A rise in anti-British sentiment during the American War of Independence and opposition to the overbearing, pro-British stadholder
In 1787, why did Louis XVI order the judges of the parlement of Paris into exile in the provinces? they refused to agree
Who was the author of the Declaration of the Rights of Women of 1791? Olympe de Gouge
In 1789, people’s expectations for the Estates General were especially high because Third Estate deputies were conduits for lists of grievances voted on by villagers and townspeople
What impact did the July 14, 1789, fall of the Bastille have on the political landscape of France? It demonstrated that the common people were willing to intervene violently, and it set off further revolts throughout France, which caused the king’s government to crumble
What new reforms resulted from the Second Revolution of August 10, 1792? The legislature ordered elections for a constitutional convention and instituted universal male suffrage; when the National Convention met, it abolished the monarchy and established a republi
How did the National Assembly respond to growing peasant unrest in the countryside in the summer of 1789?

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