Texas Government test 3 (Chapters 5 & 6)

In modern elections, candidates increasingly rely on which of the following to communicate information to voters? Social media such as Facebook and Twitter
Most voters in Texas learn about candidates for office through television ads
According to studies, negative commercials draw voter preference away from the candidate being attacked
Organizations created to collect and distribute contributions to political campaigns are referred to as political action committees
Which of the following statements regarding the Campaign Reform Act of 2002 is false? none of its provisions have been overturned by the Supreme Court
In which case did the Supreme Court overturn a ban on unlimited independent expenditures made by corporations, unions, and nonprofit organizations in federal elections? Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010)
Independent, expenditure-only committees that may raise unlimited sums of money to support or oppose political candidates are known as ​​SuperPACs
Which of the following is not true of Texas campaign finance regulations for state offices? There are no disclosure requirements by candidates
Texas’s Latino and African American populations combined comprise more than half of the state’s total population
​La Raza Unida Party was founded by several Latino leaders in order to field candidates for office and mobilize Mexican-American voters
Which of the following is the most likely reason that La Raza Unida did not continue to be politically effective? The Texas Democratic Party has adopted issues appealing to Hispanic voters
By 2015, Texans had elected Latino candidates to which offices? The state Supreme Court, U.S. Senate, U.S. House, and Texas legislature
What percentage of Texas’s African American citizens say that they are Democrats? 80 percent
Prior to 1990, how many women had been elected to statewide office in Texas?​ 4
The first openly gay mayor of a major U.S. city was Annise Parker, sworn in as mayor of Houston in 2010
The increased presence of women in policymaking positions has resulted in such changes as increased punishments for family violence and sexual abuse of children
Which of the following is not a reason that fewer women than men seek elected office? Women are not allowed to run for elected office unless they have completed a graduate degree
The principal political activity of most Texans consists of voting in elections
The ability of almost all citizens 18 years of age and older to vote is referred to as universal suffrage
Literacy tests were implemented to ensure minorities could not vote
Protection of the right to vote for African Americans was the intention behind which amendments to the U. S. Constitution? Fourteenth and Fifteenth
In the U.S. Supreme Court case of Guinn v. United States (1915), the court ruled that the grandfather clause was illegal
Which of the following was not a device used in Texas to prevent many lower-income persons and blacks from voting after the Civil War? Grandfather clause
Which U.S. amendment prevents states from requiring payment of a poll tax as a condition for voting? Twenty-Fourth Amendment
Why was the white primary so effective at preventing minorities from exercising their right to vote? White Democrats nominated white candidates who virtually always won the general elections in the south
In the case of Smith v. Allwright, the U.S. Supreme Court overturned the white-only primary elections in Texas
Manipulating legislative district lines to favor a political party or group is referred to as gerrymandering
In which of the following cases did the Supreme Court disallow racial gerrymandering? Shaw v. Reno (1993)
In Texas, the responsibility of redistricting rests with the state legislature
As a result of the Shelby v. Holder case, the state of Texas is no longer required to obtain preclearance from the U.S. Department of Justice for its electoral district maps
Which of the following are not now required by the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and its subsequent amendments? A formula for determining which jurisdictions need preclearance from the U.S. Department of Justice
A political district from which two or more representatives are elected is an at-large majority district
The amendment to the U.S. Constitution that prohibited the states from denying the vote due to race was the Fifteenth Amendment
Which of the following amendments to the U.S. Constitution broadened the franchise, extending the right to vote to new groups? Fifteenth, Nineteenth, and Twenty-Sixth
The primary purpose of the National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (Motor Voter Law) was to require states to make voter registration available at driver licensing, military recruitment, welfare, and disability offices
Which of the following accurately describes trends in suffrage in the United States? Voting rights have steadily expanded and there has been a movement toward uniformity of voting policies among states
Compared to the rest of the country, voter turnout in Texas is lower than the national average
Low voter turnout in Texas is attributed to all of the following, except the repeal of laws that expanded suffrage
Of the various socioeconomic factors that influence voter turnout, which is considered the strongest? Education
Among the key factors that affect voter turnout are income, age, gender, and ethnicity
In order to be qualified to vote in Texas, one must meet all of the following qualifications except be a two-year resident of the state
A Texas citizen’s status as a registered voter is suspended if she changes her permanent address to another county and fails to notify the voting registrar within three years
Which of the following would not be eligible to vote in Texas? A person who has been declared mentally incompetent by a court of law
According to a recent change in the law in Texas, voters must show a valid photo ID in order to cast a ballot
Early or absentee voting in Texas for general elections begins how many days prior to the actual date of the election? 17 days
The basic geographic area for conducting national, state, district, and county elections is the voting precinct
Voting precincts in the 254 Texas counties are drawn by the county commissioners courts
Preparing the official ballot for general elections is done by the county clerk or elections
Which type of voting system is no longer used by any Texas counties? Punchcard ballots
A major requirement of the 1975 extension of the Voting Rights Act is that ballots in all Texas counties must be bilingual
An election in which party members choose a candidate to run for office in a general election is a primary election
The purpose of a general election is to elect officeholders
In order to obtain a primary nomination in Texas, a candidate must receive what part of the popular vote? An absolute majority
A primary system in which voters must declare their party affiliation when they register to vote is referred to as a(n) closed primary
The main reason for the development of direct primaries was decreasing the domination of party bosses and allowing more participation by party members
The Texas Election Code requires that primary voters declare their party affiliation at the time of voting in the party’s primary
The practice of many Texans of voting in the Democratic primary and then voting Republican at the general election is called crossover voting
Normally, the first primary election in Texas is held on the first Tuesday in March of even-numbered years
Political parties in Texas are required to conduct direct primaries if they received 20 percent or more of the votes in the most recent gubernatorial election
The cost of primary elections in Texas is paid for by filing fees charged to candidates, subsidized by state funds
The date of general elections in Texas is the first Tuesday following the first Monday in November of even-numbered years
For a candidate to win a general election, she must receive a ________ of the total votes cast plurality
The term midterm election refers to those general elections held in non-presidential election years
If a candidate wins a plurality but not a majority of votes cast in a special election in Texas, a runoff contest between the two top contenders must be conducted
In Texas, special elections are called to fill interim vacancies in legislative and congressional districts
The most common way that Americans get their news is ​from conversations
The media source from which most Texans now get their news is ​television
Once the nation’s main source of news, newspapers have declined because ​of competition from television and the Internet
Which of the following is not true of the 404 non-daily newspapers being published in Texas in 2012​? They are influential in state politics because they are read by elites
Which of the following is not true of newsmagazines? ​There are more newsmagazines than there are newspapers, and they are read by more people
Despite their relative decline, why are the print media still important sources of information? ​They cover stories in more detail, inform the elite, and remain the largest gatherers of news
Which of the following are more likely to require that ​stories be vetted for accuracy and to attempt to follow standards of objectivity? major print media
Which of the following best describes the status of radio as a news source in America? Ninety-nine percent of American homes have at least one radio, but radio has limited value as a source of political news
​What happened when the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) abolished the Fairness Doctrine in 1987? Conservative talk-radio hosts quickly outpaced liberals
Who became talk radio’s most syndicated host in the 1990s? ​Rush Limbaugh
Which of the following is true of public radio stations like KERA and KUHT? They provide substantial coverage of local, state, and national news
Commercial television began in Texas ​after World War II
Which television news format is most used by the public? Cable news
Websites and computer applications that allow users to create online communities and engage in social networking are known as social media
A web page on which writers regularly record opinions, information, and links ​to other sites is known as a ​blog
Which of the following is not true of social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter? ​Less than 10 percent of U.S. adults get news from Facebook
Which of the following is not one of the roles that the text says media ​fills in U.S. and Texas politics? To be a forum solely for unbiased discussion of political topics
People are more likely to hear and remember ideas and information if they come from a trusted opinion leader
Which of the following has been a trend in news coverage? Competition for viewers and advertising dollars has led to more entertainment and less news in broadcasts
Followers of talk radio, cable news (such as FOX or MSNBC) or ideological blogs are likely to ​develop more political knowledge, but accept inaccurate or incomplete versions of reality
In the 19th century (1800s), newspapers in Texas and the other American states were​ highly partisan and not always truthful
The term “Yellow Journalism” referred to journalism based on sensationalism and exaggeration
The media play a role in keeping and protecting democracy by ​keeping citizens informed enough to make intelligent decisions and investigating government activities
Which of the following is not a reason that newspapers began to move away from strong partisanship toward more even-handed, objective reporting in the last half of the 19th century?​ The government passed laws requiring greater objectivity and less partisanship
For reporting to exhibit professionalism, it should be objective, neutral, and accurate
On the editorial pages of newspapers and magazines​ advocacy is practiced and editors and columnists give their opinions
The standards of professionalism are sometimes compromised when professional reporters over-report the views of​ government officials and others with power whom they see as reliable, legitimate and knowledgeable
When reporting is done in a combative style that features opposition, it is referred to adversarial journalism
Which of the following tend not to be heavily partisan in Texas? Newspapers
When the media help keep public officials honest by asking hard questions and looking into suspicious actions, they are engaging in ​investigative journalism
In the 1970s, the media in Texas supported Common Cause and other public interest groups ​in pushing through legislation to require open meetings and open records
Which of the following is true of the Texas media’s coverage of scandals in state politics? ​Media investigations have uncovered corruption and led to instances of public officials being held accountable
When it comes to agenda setting in Texas, the media ​struggle to exert influence because of fewer reporters, fragmented government, competition with interest groups, and more.
When it comes to shaping our perceptions of events and issues, the media provide information, but their ability to shape opinion is reduced by personal knowledge, connections, and pre-existing opinions
The strongest effect of attack ads on electoral politics seems to be that people who marginally support an attacked candidate become less certain and abstain from voting for that candidate
When the news media says how important an issue is or which part of a situation is most important, they are engaging in ​priming
When the news media provides meaning or defines the central theme of an issue, they are engaging in ​​framing
Which of the following conclusions is not supported by today’s research on media influence? The media have an influence on what citizens think about
Compared to political candidates at the national level, candidates in Texas​ have an easier time controlling or at least influencing how the media covers them
When critics of the media complain about “horserace journalism”, they are ​pointing to the fact that the media tend to focus more on who is winning an election than on the issues that matter
Candidates began to use social media for their campaigns in a major way in ​2008 and 2012
One of the key strategies that helped Barack Obama win both of his elections for President was​ identifying and micro-targeting potential younger voters through their e-mail and social media accounts
Which of the following is not true of Rick Perry’s highly successful 2010 gubernatorial campaign? ​He relied heavily on direct mail, phone banks, and volunteers knocking on the doors of strangers
Which of the following is not true of civic engagement and the Internet, according to study by the Pew Research Internet ​Project? Use of the Internet and social media lead to less civic engagement and political activity
When it comes to measures of civic engagement like voter turnout, being involved in groups, donating to charity, volunteering​ and discussing political issues online, Texans are below the national average
Which of the following is true of media outlets today?​ ​Reporters tend to be liberal and Democratic, while owners and publishers tend to be conservative and Republican
Texas newspapers have generally supported conservative political candidates
Talk radio has long been dominated by ​conservatives
Which amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects freedom of the press? First Amendment
American courts are very hesitant to allow prior restraint, which means ​it is difficult for the government to censor, or to suppress material before it is published
The agency responsible for media regulation is the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
The idea that Internet service providers should treat all Internet data equally without charging differentially or ​blocking content they don’t like is referred to as net neutrality​
Which of the following is true regarding freedom of the press in Texas?​ ​Texas has a shield law that protects journalists from having to reveal certain confidential sources
Which of the following is not true of the media today? There are no sites on the Internet dedicated to checking facts
When a news medium focuses on a narrow audience defined by special interest, they are engaging in niche journalism
Which of the following is true of media ownership today?​ Just six corporations own most of the national media outlets
The trend in media ownership in Texas​ has been that ownership of Texas media outlets by Texas companies has declined
Which of the following is not a common concern about concentration of ​media ownership? There is an increase in hard news and a decrease in soft news
The reporters assigned to cover state-level news, commonly working in the state capital, are known as the ​capitol press corps
When the three major television networks began to face competition from cable news in the 1980s, they responded by reducing coverage of hard news and increasing coverage of scandals, horserace journalism, and controversial sound bites

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