Ch. 13 Policy

The Texas state budget is exceeded only by those of California and New York
Which of the following is not true about recent state budgets? demands for state services has decreased over time
Adjusting for population and inflation state spending grew at an average annual rate of _________ over the last 20 years. 0.8%
During the 2012-2013 fiscal year ________ of estimated Texas revenues are from state taxes? 44%
During the 2012-2013 fiscal year what percent of estimated Texas revenues came from the federal government? 39%
The income tax became available to the national government with the ratification of which amendment to the United States Constitution? 16th
Individual and corporate income taxes immediately became the national government’s major source of funding and today they constitute approximately _________ of federal tax revenue. 56%
Property taxes were once the major source of state revenue until Great Depression of 1930s
In 1931 Texas adopted a tax on cigarettes
Broadly based taxes collected on the retail price of most items are called general sales tax
Selective sales taxes in Texas are applied to liquor sales
What kinds of taxes are included in the retail prices of the goods and services? hidden taxes
Texas’s largest single individual revenue source is federal funds
All the following items have a hidden tax included in their prices: cigarette gasoline alcohol NOT real estate
A _________ is a tax on raw material (such as oil and natural gas) when they are extracted from their natural state. severance tax
What is Texas’s general sales tax on retail purchases? 6.25%
The general sales tax yielded what percent of the state’s revenue? 24.8 percent
What taxes are the major source of revenue for virtually all local government cities counties and special duties? property taxes
Which of the following has occurred because of Texas’s state government-imposed mandates on local governments? state taxes have remained low but local taxes are higher than in many states
Property taxes are the major source of revenue for virtually all of the following governments except national government
Which tax may be applied to two major types of property including real property and personal property? ad valorem
Ad valorem taxes may not be applied to which of the following? sale of real estate
Ad valorem means “according to value”
Which of the following has the authority to determine the property tax rate on real property in a county? commissioner’s court
Which of the following is incorrect? high income taxes can discourage general economic activity
Which of the following taxes is not considered one of the most effective at raising revenue? narrowed based
__________ is a tax designed to be paid by a large number of taxpayers. broad-based tax
In the battle over taxation one of the most intense issues is what should be taxed
Which of the following is not a common political rationalization for taxing various groups differently? to appease the general public back home
A tax imposed with the intent of exerting social or economic control by reducing taxes on approved behaviors or imposing higher taxes on undesirable activities is regulatory tax
Regulatory taxes are sometimes called a(n) sin tax
An excise or “sin” tax is levied on the sale manufacture or use of all of the following except snacks
The gasoline tax is an example of what type of tax? benefits received
Which of the following does not fall under the category of the benefits-received principle? local school taxes
The most common ability-to-pay taxes are levied on all of the following except gasoline
All of the following are seldom taxed with the exception of real estate
What percentage of Americans pays no income taxes at all? 40%
Tax rates that place more of a burden on low- and middle-income taxpayers than on wealthier ones care called regressive tax rates
Declining marginal propensity to consume means as income increases spending increases proportionately
Which of the following is an example of tax shifting? business tax rises-prices rise. property taxes increase-landlords raise rent. business making their taxes consumer taxes.
Which of the following income groups in Texas paid the highest percentage in effective taxes? lower
Which of the following states does not collect a small percentage of their resident’s income than Texas? Alaska
__________ advocate that taxes on higher-income individuals should be kept low to allow them to save and invest to stimulate the economy. supply-siders
For the 2012-2013 biennium Texas will receive approximately __________ in federal funds which represents 30 percent of state revenue. $71 billion
At the beginning of each legislative session the _________ reports to the legislature the total amount of revenues expected from current taxes and other sources. comptroller of public accounts
State bonds that are repaid with the revenues from the service they finance are called revenue bonds
General-obligation bonds cannot be used for which of the following? higher education bonds financed by tuition income
It is through what process that the legislature legally authorizes the state to spend money to provide its various programs and services? appropriations
Trading votes among legislators especially to fund local projects to benefit their constituents is called logrolling
Texas ranked __________ among the 50 states in overall per capita spending. 47th
The most costly service in Texas is education
In 1949 which law increased state funding and established the Texas Education Agency (TEA) which carries out the state’s educational program. Gilmer Aikin
The State Board of Education does all of the following: establishes guidelines for operating public schools. requires cost accounting and financial reports from local districts. sets curriculum. DOES NOT make routine managerial decisions
The Texas’s ranking of population older than 25 with a high school diploma is 50th
Which law “recaptured” property tax revenue from property-wealthy school districts and distributed those in property-poor districts in an effort to equalize the financing of all districts throughout Texas? the Robinhood plan
When did the state of Texas initiate the top 10 percent plan? when the 5th circuit ruled race could not be considered in affirmative action policies
Which is not a level of state involvement in health care? when it advocates socialized medicine
TxDOT planned to use comprehensive development agreement with private entities to develop a highly ambitious and controversial 50-year program to supplement existing highways. This program was called the Trans-texas corridor
Which of the following did the Trans-Texas Corridor not include? housing
According to the Davis essay the slow decrease of support from the state has led many colleges and universities to rely more on part-time faculty. offering fewer courses. increased class size

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