History Ch 6

Which side seems to have the greater chance of winning a war? (The British have a far superior fighting force, which should indicate a greater likelihood of success in a war.)
What was John Adams’s opinion on the human cost of the war? Did people agree or disagree with him? (Adams thought it would be a long war with many deaths. Few people agreed because each side thought they would win quickly.)
Why did the British think the war would be over quickly? (They felt they would crush the Patriots with the size and strength of their fighting forces.)
What advantages did the Patriots have? (Americans were fighting on their own ground; they had more motivation; and they had a great leader in George Washington.)
Who were the Hessians and what role did they play during the war? (Hessians were mercenaries, or hired soldiers. Great Britain hired them to fight against the Americans.)
How were the militia forces different from Continental Army soldiers? (Militia forces were local individuals who would come to fight when called upon. They were often farmers who did not want to leave their farms for long periods of time. Continental Army forces were professional soldiers who were being paid to fight wherever they were ordered to.)
Why were militias important to the American Revolution? (The Continental Army was not able to get as many regular soldiers as Washington would have liked. Local militias knew the land and were motivated to protect their homes and families.)
What actions did these women take to help in the war? (They fought in battle and helped the soldiers on the battlefield.)
Why would these women want to participate in dangerous battle zones? (They wanted to be near their loved ones or to fight for independence.)
What strategy did the British use after the Battle of Bunker Hill? (The British sent 32,000 troops to America in the hopes that the large number of men would intimidate the Patriots.)
Why did the British let General Washington escape after the Battle of Long Island? (After chasing him across New Jersey into Pennsylvania, they felt he was beaten and let him go.)
What were some of the reasons that African Americans fought in the American Revolution? (They believed in the Patriot cause, a chance to earn money, some may have been enslaved people who had run away, others may have been allowed to enlist.)
Why was Washington’s attack on Trenton a surprise? (It was Christmas night. The British did not expect an attack.)
Why were the Battles of Trenton and Princeton so important to the American Revolution? (The surprise battles were a great strategic success for George Washington, and they also raised the hope and morale of the Continental Army.)
Why was Albany so important to the British? (If the British could control Albany, they could control the Hudson River.)
Which three British leaders were essential to the plan to take Albany? (General Howe, Lieutenant Colonel St. Leger, and General Burgoyne)
What was the outcome of the Battle of Saratoga? (The British under General Burgoyne suffered a serious defeat. This marked a turning point in the war.)
How do you think the Continental Army’s victory at Saratoga might change the course of the war? (The victory might shake British confidence, inspire more American support for the war, and might convince other countries, such as France, to support the American cause.)
Why did the French like Ben Franklin so much? (They admired Franklin’s distinct personality. They thought he was interesting because of his many talents as a writer, philosopher, inventor, and so on.)
In what ways did France secretly support the Patriots? (They had given the Americans money, but had not joined the war.)
Why did France agree to help the Patriots after Saratoga? (The victory showed that the United States might actually be able to win the war.)
How did Spain help the United States? (Spain declared war on Great Britain in 1779. This kept British forces occupied in other areas of North America.)
Why was the winter of 1777 so difficult at Valley Forge? (It was very cold and the troops lacked food, supplies, and necessary equipment. This included clothing, shelter, and medicine.)
How did the troops deal with the harsh conditions? (Some made do the best they could, some deserted, some quit, and some got sick and died.)
How did Martha Washington and other volunteers help at Valley Forge? (They made clothes for the soldiers and tended to the sick.)
How do you think Baron von Steuben at Valley Forge affected the morale of the Continental Army? (Von Steuben had been a professional soldier in the Prussian army, and by training the Patriot troops, he probably improved their morale.)
Who was Marquis de Lafayette and what role did he play in the American Revolution? (Lafayette was a young French volunteer who believed in Patriot ideals and became a trusted aide to General Washington.)
How did Kosciusko and Pulaski contribute to the Continental Army? (They fought for the army and helped build defenses.)
Which nations did Juan de Miralles persuade to help the United States? (Miralles persuaded Spain, Cuba, and Mexico to send money to the colonies.)
How did foreign individuals contribute to the Patriot cause? (Foreign-born people came to fight for the United States, train the army, build defenses, and secure financing for the war.)
How did Congress try to finance the war? Why did this solution fail? (Congress just printed money.) (There was not enough gold to back paper money, which led to inflation. That means more and more paper money was needed to buy the same amount of goods. The more money that was printed, the less valuable it became. People lost faith in paper money so the government stopped printing it. That left the government with no way to pay its bills.)
What was expected of women on the home front? How was this different from usual? (Women had to care for their families by themselves. They also ran businesses or farms if their husbands or others were away, jobs that men usually did.)
How does Abigail Adams relate the American Revolution to the treatment of women? (She is pointing out that the ideals of freedom, independence, and representation of the American Revolution should also be applied to women in their society.)
Why did Governor William Livingston ask his government to free all enslaved people? (He felt that it was against Christian and human principles to enslave people.)
Why did African Americans fight during the war? (to fight for freedom or to secure their freedom from slavery)
What were some consequences of being a Loyalist during the American Revolution? (They faced difficult times, including being shunned, becoming victims of violence, having their property taken away, facing arrest, and possibly even execution for spying.)
Why were Patriots so hard on Loyalists? (They viewed them as traitors who supported British rule.)
Who did most Native Americans side with during the American Revolution and why? (Most Native Americans sided with the British because they viewed them as less of a threat. Americans had taken their land.)
Who was Chief Joseph Brant? (Brant was a Mohawk war chief who led brutal attacks against the Americans in New York and Pennsylvania.)
How many men did Clark lead on the western missions? (Clark led a small militia force of about 175.)
Why did Clark recapture Vincennes? (It was a key outpost that strengthened the American position in the West.)
What key accomplishments were made by Clark’s small militia force? (Clark’s forces captured Kaskaskia and Vincennes, securing a better position for the United States on the western frontier.)
Why did the British use a blockade during the American Revolution? (Great Britain had a strong navy and used it to block ports and harbors. This affected the ability of the Americans to move troops and supplies.)
How did privateers contribute to the Patriot war effort? (Privateers captured more British ships and cargo than the American navy.)
Who was the captain of the Bonhomme Richard? (John Paul Jones) What did Jones mean when he said, “I have not yet begun to fight”? (Even though there had been a long battle, he was nowhere near giving in.)
Why did the British decide to head to the southern part of America? (The British decided to focus on the Southern Colonies where there were many Loyalists.)
Why was the surrender of Charles Town the worst American defeat of the war? (Charles Town was a key city, and the British took thousands of prisoners upon its surrender.)
Who was General Cornwallis? What was his role in the war? (General Cornwallis was a British commander who was the leader of British forces in the South.)
Who was Francis Marion? (He was one successful Patriot leader. Marion, who was known as the “Swamp Fox,” operated out of the swamps of eastern South Carolina.)
Why are hit-and-run attacks a good strategy when you are outnumbered? (If outnumbered, using surprise hit-and-run style attacks can help preserve your own force while doing maximum damage to the opposing side.)
How did Gálvez help the United States? (He sent supplies and ammunition to Americans up the Mississippi River and raised an army to fight the British. He defeated the British on Manchac, Baton Rouge, and Natchez, and captured Fort Georgia at Pensacola.)
What did the British do to anger the local mountain people? (The British threatened their lives and homes if they did not switch sides.)
What did the Patriot militia forces do at Kings Mountain? (They surrounded the British forces and killed or captured their entire force.)
Who won the Battle of Guilford Courthouse? Who sustained more losses in this battle? (The British won by forcing a retreat of the Patriots.) (The British sustained serious losses compared to the few Patriot losses.)
What was the effect of the Battle of Guilford Courthouse? (Cornwallis gave up his campaign to capture the Carolinas.)
What advantage did Rochambeau bring to the Americans and the Continental Army? (Rochambeau was an experienced military leader with thousands of troops at his command.)
Who did Comte de Rochambeau meet with in New York? (Rochambeau met General George Washington in New York. Washington was the commander of the Continental Army.)
What did Washington plan to do once the second French fleet arrived? How did the strategy change once they realized that the second French fleet was not going to arrive in New York? (attack a British army base in New York under the command of General Clinton) (The focus shifted to the British in Yorktown.)
Why did Washington keep his plan to march to Virginia a secret? (It prevented General Clinton from sending help to General Cornwallis.)
How far and long did the French and the Patriots march? (200 miles in 15 days)
How did the secrecy of the Virginia march turn out to be successful? (General Clinton did not learn about where the French and the Patriots had gone until it was too late. By then there was nothing they could do.)
What is a siege? (A siege is an attempt to force surrender by blocking the movement of people or goods into or out of a place.)
How did the Americans employ a siege against Cornwallis? (The Americans had Cornwallis blocked and stopped supplies, troops, and aid from coming in or out.)
Who led an attack to capture key British defenses? (Alexander Hamilton)
Why did Cornwallis finally surrender? (He saw that the situation was hopeless.)
How many prisoners did the Patriots capture? (8,000)
Why did Cornwallis choose to surrender at Yorktown? (He could see that his situation was hopeless.)
Why did the French band play “Yankee Doodle Dandy” at the surrender ceremony? (Playing this was ironic because it was a song the British had used to tease the Americans.)
How did Yorktown affect the outcome of the war? (The loss made the British realize that continuing the war was too costly.)
What was the Treaty of Paris? (It was an agreement between the United States and Great Britain to end the American Revolution.)
Who were the delegates sent by America to negotiate the treaty of Paris? (Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay) When was the Treaty of Paris signed? (September 3, 1783)
What benefits did the United States receive under the Treaty of Paris? (recognition as an independent nation, withdrawal of all British troops, fishing rights to the waters off the coast of Canada)
What benefits did Great Britain receive under the Treaty? (Americans would pay their debts to British merchants, and states would return property taken from Loyalists.)
What were Washington’s plans after the war? (to settle in Mount Vernon)
Why do you think Washington wanted to retire from public life? (His involvement in establishing America went all the way back to the French and Indian War and he may have wanted time to live a private life.)

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