Chapter 1 Finance Concept

Which of the following best describes why the Valuation Principle is a key concept in making financial decisions?A) It shows how to assign monetary value to intangibles such as good health and well-being.B) It allows fixed assets and liquid assets to be valued correctly.C) It gives a good indication of the net worth of a person, item, or company and can be used to estimate any changes in that net worth.D) It shows how to make the costs and benefits of a decision comparable so that we can weigh them properly. D
Which of the following types of firms does NOT have limited liability?A) sole proprietorshipsB) limited partnershipsC) corporationsD) none of the above A
Over four-fifths of all U.S. business revenue is generated by which type of firms?A) sole proprietorshipsB) partnershipsC) limited partnershipsD) corporations D
What is the most common type of firms in the United States and the world?A) sole proprietorshipsB) partnershipsC) limited partnershipsD) corporations A
Which of the following is typically the major factor in limiting the growth of sole proprietorships?A) The organizational structure of such firms tends to become extremely complicated over time.B) It is extremely difficult to transfer control of such firms to a new owner if the present owner dies or wishes to sell the firm.C) The amount of money that can be raised by such firms is limited by the fact that the single owner must make good on all debts.D) Investors have a great deal of control over the day-to-day running of such firms, leading to confusion when conflicts in direction arise. C
Joe is a general partner in a limited partnership firm, while Jane is a limited partner in the same firm. Which of the following statements regarding their respective relationships to the firm is correct?A) Joe has no management authority within the partnership.B) Jane is legally involved in the managerial decision making of the firm.C) Jane’s liability for the firm’s debts consists solely of her investment in the firm.D) Withdrawal of Jane from the partnership will dissolve the partnership. C
What is the major way in which the roles and obligations of the owners of a limited liability company differ from the roles and obligations of limited partners in a limited partnership?A) The owners of a limited liability company have personal obligation for debts incurred by the company.B) There is no separation between the company and its owners in a limited liability company.C) The owners of a limited liability company can withdraw from the company without the company being dissolved.D) The owners of a limited liability company can take an active role in running the company. D
In which of the following ways is a limited liability company like a corporation? A) It was created and developed first in the United States.B) It can choose to be considered a partnership for tax purposes.C) Its owners’ liability is restricted to their investment.D) It is directly managed by the owners. C
Why is it possible for a corporation to enter into contracts, acquire assets, incur obligations, and enjoy protection against the seizure of its property?A) The number of owners, and hence the spread of risk among these owners, is not limited.B) Its owners are liable for any obligations it enters into.C) The state in which a corporation is incorporated provides safeguards against any wrongdoing by the corporation.D) It is a legally defined, artificial entity that is separate from its owners. D
Which of the following features of a corporation is LEAST accurate?A) The owners’ identity is separate from a corporation.B) The owners of a corporation are not liable for any obligations the corporation enters into.C) Changes in ownership do not result in the dissolution of the corporation.D) Earnings from a corporation are taxed only once. D
12) What is the major advantage corporations have over other business entities?A) It is easier for a corporation to raise capital than other forms of businesses.B) A corporation is treated as a separate legal entity for tax and legal purposes.C) A corporation’s shares can be freely traded among its shareholders.D) All of the above are advantages that a corporation has over other business forms. D
Which of the following is unique for an S corporation?A) The profits and losses of an S corporation are not taxed at the corporate level, but shareholders must include these profits and losses on their individual tax returns.B) The shareholders of an S corporation must include the firm’s profit and losses in their individual income taxes even if no money is distributed to them.C) There is a maximum limit on the number of shareholders for an S corporation.D) None of the above statements is unique. D
Which of the following people may not manage the operations of a firm in which they are part or full owners?A) stockholders in S corporationsB) stockholders in C corporationsC) limited partners in a limited partnershipD) general partners in a limited partnership C
What is the process of double taxation for the stockholders in a C corporation?A) Their shares are taxed when they are both bought and sold.B) The corporation is taxed on the profits it makes, and the owners are taxed when this profit is distributed to them.C) The owners of a corporation are taxed when they receive dividend payments and when they make a profit from the sale of shares.D) The corporation must pay taxes on any profits it makes, and the capital raised by the sale of shares is also subject to taxation. B
A sole proprietorship is owned by ________.A) one personB) two or more personsC) shareholdersD) bankers A
Which of the following organization forms has the most revenue?A) S corporationB) limited partnershipC) C corporationD) limited liability company C
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of a sole proprietorship?A) single taxationB) ease of setupC) unlimited liabilityD) no separation of ownership and control C
A limited liability company is essentially ________.A) a limited partnership without limited partnersB) a limited partnership without a general partnerC) just another name for a limited partnershipD) just another name for a corporation B
Which of the following is a major duty of a financial manager?I. To make investment decisionsII. To make financing decisionsIII. To manage cash flow from operating activitiesA) I onlyB) I and II onlyC) I and III onlyD) all of the above D
Why in general do financial managers make financial decisions in a corporation, rather than the owners making these decisions themselves?A) It is best for the control of the finances of a corporation to be in the hands of a disinterested third party.B) The interests of the various owners may conflict with each other.C) The owners may not be U.S. citizens or residents.D) There are often many owners, and they can often change as they buy and sell stock. D
What is the most important duty of a firm’s financial officer?A) to ensure that the firm has enough cash on hand to meet its commitments at any given timeB) to decide how to pay for investmentsC) to manage working capitalD) to make investment decisions D
The financial manager of a well-regarded book publishing firm wishes to buy a small Internet publishing company to provide an avenue for sale of its materials online. In order to raise the funds to make this purchase, the financial manager decides to sell more stock in the company. How is the financial manager raising funds in this case?A) by increasing the debt burden carried by the companyB) by raising the company’s equity by encouraging new owners to take a stake in the companyC) by decreasing the ratio of equity to debt held by the companyD) by increasing the value of shares held by the existing owners of the company B
Which of the following is NOT a reason why a firm’s financial managers must take great care when making investment decisions?A) These investment decisions determine whether the firm will add value for its owners.B) These investments determine the long-term directions in which the company may move.C) These investment decisions determine the corporation’s mix of debt and equity.D) These investment decisions typically involve substantial costs which must be carefully weighed against their potential benefits. C
A company that produces racing motorbikes has several models that sell well within the motorcycle racing community and which are very profitable for the company. Despite having a profitable product, why must this company take care to ensure that it has sufficient cash on hand to meet its obligations?A) Profits from the sales of popular models will be lost when returned to the shareholders in the form of dividends.B) New models will require a lot of money to develop and bring to market before they generate any revenue.C) The company will have built up debts which must be repaid in order to bring the current models to market.D) Equity must be raised to finance the development of new models to replace the existing models. B
A typical company has many types of shareholders, from individuals holding a few shares, to large institutions that hold very large numbers of shares. How does a financial manager ensure that the priorities and concerns of such disparate stockholders are met?A) The financial manager should seek to make investments that do not harm the interests of the stockholders.B) The decisions taken by the financial manager should be solely influenced by the benefit to the company since, by maximizing its fitness, he or she will also maximize the benefits of that company to the shareholders.C) The financial manager should consider the interests and concerns of large shareholders a priority so the needs of those who hold a controlling interest in the company are met.D) In general, all shareholders will agree that they are better off if the financial manager works to maximize the value of their investment. D
Whose interests should a financial manager consider paramount when making a decision?A) the stockholders who have risked their money to become owners of the companyB) the employees and associated stakeholders who are employed by the companyC) the public who consume the company’s goods and servicesD) the senior management and associated colleagues at the executive level within the company A
How do the shareholders of most corporations exercise their control of that corporation?A) by voting on issues that concern themB) by electing members of a board of directorsC) by vetting the decisions of the board of directorsD) by providing oversight of the day-to-day running of the corporation B
Which of the following is NOT a function of the board of directors?A) determining how top executives should be compensatedB) monitoring the performance of the companyC) answering to shareholders of the companyD) day-to-day running of the company D
In most corporations, to whom does the chief financial officer report?A) shareholdersB) the board of directorsC) the chief executive officerD) the controller C
Which of the following would be more typically the responsibility of a controller rather than a treasurer?A) overseeing accounting and tax functionsB) capital budgetingC) managing creditD) making investment decisions A
Which of the following would be best considered to be an agency conflict problem in the behavior of the following financial managers?A) Bill chooses to pursue a risky investment for the company’s funds because his compensation will substantially rise if it succeeds.B) Sue instructs her staff to skip safety inspections in one of the company’s factories, knowing that it will likely fail the inspection and incur significant costs to fix.C) James ignores an opportunity for his company to invest in a new drug to fight Alzheimer’s disease, judging the drug’s chances of succeeding as low.D) Michael chooses to enhance his firm’s reputation at some cost to its shareholders by sponsoring a team of athletes for the Olympics. A
A factory owner wants his workers to produce as many widgets as they can so he pays his workers based on how many widgets they produce. However, in order to make sure that the workers do not rush and produce a large number of poorly made widgets, he checks the widgets at random at various stages of their manufacture. If a defect is found in a widget, the pay of the entire section of the factory responsible for that defect is docked. How is this factory owner seeking to solve the agency conflict problem in this case?A) by supplying incentives so the agents act in the way principal desiresB) by ensuring that all workers co-operate to maximize the gains of their sectionC) by making the agents into principals themselvesD) by maximizing the information that the principal obtains about the behavior of the agents A
In which of the following relationships is an agency conflict problem LEAST likely to arise?A) the relationship between a hire-car company and the persons who hire that company’s cars regarding the treatment of those carsB) the relationship between high-level military officers and the soldiers who serve under them regarding the willingness of the soldiery to take risksC) the relationship between a restaurateur and the suppliers of produce to that restaurant regarding the freshness of the produce suppliedD) the relationship between a driver and the passengers in a car regarding the safe driving of that car D
What is the most common way that agency conflict problems are addressed in most corporations?A) by minimizing the number of decisions that a manager makes where there is a conflict between the managers interests and those of the shareholdersB) by terminating the employment of employees who are found to have put their own interests above those of the companyC) by using disinterested outside bodies to adjudicate between managers and shareholders when such conflicts ariseD) by prosecuting managers who have been found to have illegally used company moneys for their own benefit A
A company’s board of directors chooses to provide a comprehensive health care plan for the families of all employees, despite the large cost. They argue that this will not only increase the number of employees who stay with the firm, and thus reduce some costs involved in employee turnover, but also increase the employees’ diligence and industry. What general principle is being argued by the board of directors?A) In a conflict between stakeholders in a company, the most important stakeholder is not always the stockholders. B) Some activities that decrease shareholders’ wealth may have intangible benefits which increase the strength of the company overall.C) When a conflict of interest arises between shareholders and other stakeholders, in general, the correct solution is the one that creates the greatest good for the greatest number of stakeholders.D) Ethical decisions should be assessed on their moral value, not on their value in dollars and cents. B
Why is the stock price of a company an indication of the performance of the company’s senior managers?A) Well-run companies are invariably highly profitable, which leads to a higher share price.B) In general, people want to invest in a well-managed corporation, which will drive up the price of shares.C) Investors who can see that a company is well-run will hold on to their shares, even if the company faces setbacks, since they know that the stock price will likely rise again.D) Larger companies tend to be better run and so have higher stock prices. B
A corporate raider gains a controlling fraction of the shares of a poorly managed company and replaces the board of directors. How does the corporate raider hope to make a profit in this case?A) by the sale of the assets held by the company that hold most of its valueB) by the rise in the value of the stock held by the raider when the new board of directors is judged to be superior to the ousted board of directorsC) by motivating the board of directors and other stakeholders in the company to make difficult short-term decisions that will increase the long-term viability of the companyD) by removing the employees expectations of the continued poor performance of the company B
A ________ is when a rich individual or organization purchases a large fraction of the stock of a poorly performing firm and in doing so gets enough votes to replace the board of directors and the CEO.A) shareholder proposalB) leveraged buyoutC) shareholder actionD) hostile takeover D
Which of the following should be true for an asset to be considered liquid?A) It pays regular dividends.B) It can be bought and sold at an organized stock market or bourse.C) It is offered for sale on both primary and secondary markets.D) It can be easily bought and sold and the selling price is very close to the buying price at a given point in time. D
Why is it difficult to determine the market price of a private corporation’s shares at any point in time?A) It is difficult to obtain enough information to accurately value such a company.B) The price of its shares is fixed by the owners.C) It has a limited number of owners.D) There is no organized market for its shares. D
Which of the stock markets listed below is the smallest, as judged by trading volume?A) Deutsche BörseB) London Stock ExchangeC) NASDAQD) NYSE Euronext (US) A
Why is a stock exchange like NASDAQ considered a secondary market?A) It trades the second largest volume of shares in the world.B) Shares sold on it are exchanged between investors without any involvement of the issuing corporation.C) The exchange has rules that attempt to ensure that bid and ask prices do not get too far apart.D) NASDAQ is called a secondary market because NYSE is considered a primary market. B
On August 19, 2004 Google IPO offered 19,605,052 shares at a price of U.S. $85 per share, which were sold in an online auction in a bid to make the shares more widely available. Which of the following statements best describes why these are considered a primary market transaction?A) The transaction was between the corporation and investors.B) Shares of Google from this time onward could be traded between investors on a stock exchange.C) The shares were the first to be privately issued by Google.D) Google was at the time a recently founded company seeking capital with which to expand. A
What is the bid-ask spread?A) the difference in price available for an immediate sale of a stock and the immediate purchase of the stockB) all of the costs and fees that a stock exchange charges in order to process a transactionC) the rise or fall in the value of a stock between the time it is acquired by an investor and sold by that investorD) the difference in the selling price of a stock between different exchanges A
Which of the following is a measure of the aggregate price level of collections of pre-selected stocks?A) NASDAQB) S&P 500C) NYSED) Euronext B
Put the following steps of the financial cycle in the correct order.I.Money flows to companies who use it to fund growth through new products.II.People invest and save their money.III.Money flows back to savers and investors.A) I, II, and IIIB) II, I, and IIIC) III, II, and ID) II, III, and I B
Investments by wealthy individuals and endowments is a major source of money for each of the following EXCEPT ________.A) private equity fundsB) hedge fundsC) venture capital fundsD) mutual funds D
Which of the following is NOT a role of financial institutions?A) moving funds from savers to borrowersB) spreading out risk-bearingC) printing money for borrowersD) moving funds though time C

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