BIS CH 8

1. What allows separate systems to communicate directly with each other, eliminating the need for manual entry into multiple systems? A. IntegrationB. IntelligenceC. Data interchangeD. Demand plan A. Integration
2. What takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all downstream systems and processes? A. Forward integrationB. Forward data interchangeC. Backward integrationD. Backward data interchange A. Forward integration
What takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all upstream systems and processes? A. Forward integrationB. Forward data interchangeC. Backward integrationD. Backward data interchange C. Backward integration
Which of the below statements is inaccurate? A. Ideally an organization wants to build both forward and backward integrationsB. Integrations are expensive and difficult to build and maintainC. Most organizations invest in forward integrations onlyD. Most organizations invest in backward integrations only D. Most organizations invest in backward integrations only
What provides enterprisewide support and data access for a firm’s operations and business processes? A. Enterprise systemsB. Enterprise application integrationC. MiddlewareD. Enterprise application integration middleware A. Enterprise systems
What connects the plans, methods, and tools aimed at integrating separate enterprise systems? A. Enterprise systemsB. Enterprise application integrationC. MiddlewareD. Enterprise application integration middleware B. Enterprise application integration
What are several different types of software that sit between and provide connectivity for two or more software applications? A. Enterprise systemsB. Enterprise application integrationC. MiddlewareD. Enterprise application integration middleware C. Middleware
What takes a new approach to middleware by packaging commonly used applications together, reducing the time needed to integrate applications from multiple vendors? A. Enterprise systemsB. Enterprise application integrationC. MiddlewareD. Enterprise application integration middleware D. Enterprise application integration middleware
What is a current or existing system that will become the base for upgrading or integrating with a new system? A. Legitimate systemB. Legacy systemC. List generator systemD. All of the above B. Legacy system
Which of the following is not an example of a primary enterprise system? A. Supply chain managementB. Customer relationship managementC. Enterprise revenue planningD. Enterprise resource planning C. Enterprise revenue planning
In which of the five basic supply chain activities do you prepare to manage all resources required to meet demand? A. PlanB. SourceC. DeliverD. Return A. Plan
In which of the five basic supply chain activities do you build relationships with suppliers to procure raw materials? A. PlanB. SourceC. DeliverD. Return B. Source
In which of the five basic supply chain activities do you manufacture products and create production schedules? A. PlanB. SourceC. DeliverD. Make D. Make
In which of the five basic supply chain activities do you plan for the transportation of goods to customers? A. PlanB. SourceC. DeliverD. Return C. Deliver
What does supply chain management involve? A. The management of production material flows between and among stages in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain efficiencyB. The management of information flows between and among stages in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain costsC. The management of information flows between and among activities in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and corporate profitabilityD. None of the above C. The management of information flows between and among activities in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and corporate profitability
Where would you find the customers’ customer in a typical supply chain? A. UpstreamB. DownstreamC. In the middleD. Not in the supply chain B. Downstream
Where would you find the suppliers’ suppler in a typical supply chain? A. UpstreamB. DownstreamC. In the middleD. Not in the supply chain A. Upstream
Where would you find the manufacturer and distributor in a typical supply chain? A. UpstreamB. DownstreamC. In the middleD. Not in the supply chain C. In the middle
Walmart and Procter & Gamble (P&G) implemented a tremendously successful SCM system. The system linked Wal-Mart’s _____________ centers directly to P&G’s _____________ centers. A. manufacturing, distributionB. distribution, manufacturingC. stores, distributionD. distribution, stores B. distribution, manufacturing
What can effective and efficient supply chain management systems enable an organization to accomplish? A. Increase the power of its buyersB. Increase its supplier powerC. Increase switching costs to increase the threat of substitute products or servicesD. All of the above B. Increase its supplier power
Which of the following is an organizational result from an effective and efficient supply chain management system? A. Decrease the power of its buyersB. Create entry barriers thereby reducing the threat of new entrantsC. Increase efficiencies while seeking a competitive advantage through cost leadershipD. All of the above D. All of the above
What does the average company spend on production needs? A. Almost 10 percent of every dollar that it earnsB. Almost 20 percent of every dollar that it earnsC. Almost 40 percent of every dollar that it earnsD. Almost 50 percent of every dollar that it earns D. Almost 50 percent of every dollar that it earns
Today, SCM systems focus on extending beyond an organization’s four walls to influence: A. SuppliersB. Suppliers’ supplierC. Customers’ customerD. All of the above D. All of the above
Which of the following is not one of the three main links in the supply chain? A. Materials flow from suppliers and their “downstream” suppliers at all levelsB. Transformation of materials into semifinished and finished products-the organization’s own production processesC. Distribution of products to customers and their “downstream” customers at all levelsD. None of the above A. Materials flow from suppliers and their “downstream” suppliers at all levels
Which of the following is not one of the five basic components of supply chain management? A. PlanB. SourceC. CostD. Deliver C. Cost
What is it called when distorted product-demand information ripples from one partner to the next throughout the supply chain? A. Bullwhip effectB. Demand planning systemsC. Supply chain planning systemsD. Supply chain execution systems A. Bullwhip effect
Which of the below represents the bullwhip effect? A. Organizations know about employee events triggered downstream in the supply chainB. Customers receive distorted product demand information regarding sales informationC. Distorted product-demand information ripples from one partner to the next throughout the supply chainD. The ability to view all areas up and down the supply chain C. Distorted product-demand information ripples from one partner to the next throughout the supply chain
Which of the following ensures supply chain cohesion by automating the different activities of the supply chain? A. Bullwhip effectB. Demand planning systemsC. Supply chain planning systemsD. Supply chain execution systems D. Supply chain execution systems
What is the ability to view all areas up and down the supply chain in real time? A. Bullwhip effectB. Demand planning softwareC. Supply chain visibilityD. Supply chain execution software C. Supply chain visibility
Which of the following generates demand forecasts using statistical tools and forecasting techniques? A. Bullwhip effectB. Demand planning systemC. Supply chain visibilityD. Supply chain execution system B. Demand planning system
What increases real-time information sharing among supply chain partners focusing on reducing response time to unexpected events? A. Supply chain event managementB. Selling chain managementC. Collaborative engineeringD. Collaborative demand planning A. Supply chain event management
What automates order processes from initial customer inquiry to final product delivery? A. Supply chain event managementB. Selling chain managementC. Collaborative engineeringD. Collaborative demand planning B. Selling chain management
What helps organizations reduce inventory investments, while improving customer satisfaction? A. Supply chain event managementB. Selling chain managementC. Collaborative engineeringD. Collaborative demand planning D. Collaborative demand planning
What allows an organization to reduce product development costs? A. Supply chain event managementB. Selling chain managementC. Collaborative engineeringD. Collaborative demand planning C. Collaborative engineering
Which of the below metrics represents an unfilled customer order for a product that is out of stock? A. Back orderB. Inventory cycle timeC. Customer order cycle timeD. Inventory turnover A. Back order
Which of the below metrics represents the time it takes to manufacture a product and deliver it to the retailer? A. Back orderB. Inventory cycle timeC. Customer order cycle timeD. Inventory turnover B. Inventory cycle time
Which of the below metrics represents the agreed upon time between the purchase of a product and the delivery of the product? A. Back orderB. Inventory cycle timeC. Customer order cycle timeD. Inventory turnover C. Customer order cycle time
Which of the below metrics represents the frequency of inventory replacement? A. Back orderB. Inventory cycle timeC. Customer order cycle timeD. Inventory turnover D. Inventory turnover
Why is CRM one of the most valuable assets a company can acquire? A. Since organizations have not been successful in implementing SCM systems, they have turned their resources towards CRMB. CRM has proven to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organization’s profitabilityC. It is easy for a company to steal their competitors loyal and devoted customers, therefore companies need a viable process for targeting competitor’s customersD. Without CRM it is impossible to effectively manage or cross-sell products to customers B. CRM has proven to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organization’s profitability
Which of the following can a customer use to contact an organization? A. TelephoneB. EmailC. Web accessD. All of the above D. All of the above
As the business world increasingly shifts from product focus to customer focus, why are most organizations treating existing customers better than in the past? A. Existing customers are the best source of profitable and sustainable revenue growthB. In the age of e-business, an organization is guaranteed a favorable customer base and satisfying them is easier than everC. Organizations cannot depend on using statistical analysis or value formulas such as Recency, Frequency, and Monetary to gain insight into customer behavior or buying patternsD. Placing customers at the forefront of all thinking and decision making requires very little operational and technology changes A. Existing customers are the best source of profitable and sustainable revenue growth
There are three phases in the evolution of CRM: (1) reporting, (2) analyzing, and (3) predicting. What do CRM predicting technologies help organizations accomplish? A. Make predictions regarding customer behavior such as which customers are at risk of leavingB. Segment their customers into categories such as best and worst customersC. Identify their customers across other applicationsD. All the above A. Make predictions regarding customer behavior such as which customers are at risk of leaving
A contact center (or call center) is where customer service representatives answer customer inquiries and respond to problems through a number of different customer touchpoints. A contact center is one of the best assets a customer driven organization can have. Why? A. Contact centers can identify suppliers who are in desperate need of assistanceB. Maintaining a high level of customer support is critical to obtaining and retaining customersC. Contact centers are the only place to find answers to questions or solutions to customer problemsD. Most contact centers use analytical modeling technologies that provide business intelligence B. Maintaining a high level of customer support is critical to obtaining and retaining customers
Which of the following is not a current CRM trend? A. Partner relationship managementB. Supplier relationship managementC. Employee relationship managementD. Distributor relationship management D. Distributor relationship management
In which industry area will CRM remain a major strategic focus for years to come? A. Product is uniqueB. Product is in limited supplyC. Product is difficult to differentiateD. None of the above C. Product is difficult to differentiate
Which of the following is not a valid way that a CRM system can collect information? A. Accounting systemB. Order fulfillment systemC. Inventory systemD. Customer’s personal computer D. Customer’s personal computer
Which of the following represents operational CRM? A. Supports traditional transactional processingB. Supports day-to-day front-office operationsC. Supports operations that deal directly with the customersD. All of the above D. All of the above
What supports back-office operations and strategic analysis and includes all systems that do not deal directly with the customers? A. Analytical CRMB. Operational CRMC. Website PersonalizationD. All of the above A. Analytical CRM
What made-to-order views can analytical CRM tools slice-and-dice customer information into? A. Customer valueB. Customer spendingC. Customer segmentationD. All of the above D. All of the above
What can analytical CRM modeling tools discover? A. Identify opportunities for expanding customer relationshipsB. Identify opportunities for cross-sellingC. Identify opportunities for up-sellingD. All of the above D. All of the above
What occurs when a website can know enough about a person’s likes and dislikes that it can fashion offers that are more likely to appeal to that person? A. Operational CRMB. Analytical CRMC. Website personalizationD. All of the above C. Website personalization
Which of the following is not one of the three phases in the evolution of CRM? A. ReportingB. AnalyzingC. ProcessingD. Predicting C. Processing
What helps an organization identify its customers across applications? A. CRM reporting technologiesB. CRM analyzing technologiesC. CRM processing technologiesD. CRM predicting technologies A. CRM reporting technologies
What is an organization performing when it asks questions such as “why was customer revenue so high”? A. CRM reporting technologiesB. CRM analyzing technologiesC. CRM processing technologiesD. CRM predicting technologies B. CRM analyzing technologies
What is an organization performing when it asks questions such as “which customers are at risk of leaving”? A. CRM reporting technologiesB. CRM analyzing technologiesC. CRM processing technologiesD. CRM predicting technologies D. CRM predicting technologies
Which question below represents a CRM reporting technology example? A. Why did sales not meet forecasts?B. What customers are at risk of leaving?C. What is the total revenue by customer?D. All of the above C. What is the total revenue by customer?
Which question below represents a CRM analyzing technology question? A. Why did sales not meet forecasts?B. What customers are at risk of leaving?C. What is the total revenue by customer?D. All of the above A. Why did sales not meet forecasts?
Which question below represents a CRM predicting technology question? A. Why did sales not meet forecasts?B. What customers are at risk of leaving?C. What is the total revenue by customer?D. All of the above B. What customers are at risk of leaving?
Which of the following operational CRM technologies does the sales department typically use? A. Campaign management, contact management, opportunity managementB. Sales management, contact management, contact centerC. Sales management, call scripting, opportunity managementD. Sales management, contact management, opportunity management D. Sales management, contact management, opportunity management
Which of the following operational CRM technologies does the marketing department typically use? A. Contact center, web-based self-service, call scriptingB. Contact center, cross-selling and up-selling, web-based self-serviceC. List generator, opportunity management, cross-selling and up-sellingD. List generator, campaign management, cross-selling and up-selling D. List generator, campaign management, cross-selling and up-selling
Which of the following operational CRM technologies does the customer service department typically use? A. Contact center, web-based self-service, call scriptingB. Sales management, contact management, opportunity managementC. List generator, opportunity management, cross-selling and up-sellingD. List generator, campaign management, cross-selling and up-selling A. Contact center, web-based self-service, call scripting
What compiles customer information from a variety of sources and segments the information for different marketing campaigns? A. Campaign management systemB. Cross-sellingC. Up-sellingD. List generator D. List generator
What guides users through marketing campaigns performing such tasks as campaign definition, planning, scheduling, segmentation, and success analysis? A. Campaign management systemB. Cross-sellingC. Up-sellingD. List generator A. Campaign management system
What is McDonald’s performing when it asks its customers if they would like to super-size their meals? A. Campaign managementB. Cross-sellingC. Up-sellingD. Down-selling C. Up-selling
Which of the following represents sales force automation? A. Helping an organization identify its customers across applicationsB. Selling additional products or services to a customerC. A system that automatically tracks all of the steps in the sales processD. Selling larger products or services to a customer C. A system that automatically tracks all of the steps in the sales process
What automates each phase of the sales process, helping individual sales representatives coordinate and organize all of their accounts? A. Sales management CRM systemsB. Contact management CRM systemsC. Opportunity management CRM systemsD. None of the above A. Sales management CRM systems
What maintains customer contact information and identifies prospective customers for future sales? A. Sales management CRM systemB. Contact management CRM systemC. Opportunity management CRM systemD. Sales force automation CRM system B. Contact management CRM system
What targets sales opportunities by finding new customers or companies for future sales? A. Sales management systemB. Contact management systemC. Opportunity management systemD. Sales force automation system C. Opportunity management system
Which of the following was one of the first CRM components built to address the issues that sales representatives were struggling with the overwhelming amount of customer account information they were required to maintain and track? A. Sales management systemB. Contact management systemC. Opportunity management systemD. Sales force automation system D. Sales force automation system
What is the primary difference between contact management and opportunity management? A. Contact management deals with new customers, opportunity management deals with existing customersB. Contact management deals with existing customers, opportunity management deals with existing customersC. Contact management deals with new customers, opportunity management deals with new customersD. Contact management deals with existing customers, opportunity management deals with new customers D. Contact management deals with existing customers, opportunity management deals with new customers
Which of the following is where customer service representatives answer customer inquiries and respond to problems through a number of different customer touchpoints? A. Contact centerB. Web-based self-serviceC. Call scriptingD. Website personalization A. Contact center
What allows customers to use the web to find answers to their questions or solutions to their problems? A. Contact centerB. Web-based self-serviceC. Call scriptingD. Website personalization B. Web-based self-service
What accesses organizational databases that track similar issues or questions and automatically generate the details to the CSR who can then relay them to the customer? A. Contact centerB. Web-based self-serviceC. Call scriptingD. Website personalization C. Call scripting
What is automatic call distribution? A. Automatically dials outbound calls and when someone answers, the call is forwarded to an available agentB. Directs customers to use touch-tone phones or keywords to navigate or provide informationC. A phone switch routes inbound calls to available agentsD. None of the above C. A phone switch routes inbound calls to available agents
What is interactive voice response (IVR)? A. Automatically dials outbound calls and when someone answers, the call is forwarded to an available agentB. Directs customers to use touch-tone phones or keywords to navigate or provide informationC. A phone switch routes inbound calls to available agentsD. None of the above B. Directs customers to use touch-tone phones or keywords to navigate or provide information
What is predictive dialing? A. Automatically dials outbound calls and when someone answers, the call is forwarded to an available agentB. Directs customers to use touch-tone phones or keywords to navigate or provide informationC. A phone switch routes inbound calls to available agentsD. None of the above A. Automatically dials outbound calls and when someone answers, the call is forwarded to an available agent
Which of the following is not considered a feature in a contact center? A. Automatic call distributionB. Interactive voice responseC. Predictive dialingD. Automatic predictive dialing D. Automatic predictive dialing
What focuses on keeping suppliers satisfied by evaluating and categorizing suppliers for different projects? A. Supplier relationship managementB. Partner relationship managementC. Employee relationship managementD. None of the above A. Supplier relationship management
What discovers optimal sales channels by selecting the right partners and identifying mutual customers? A. Supplier relationship managementB. Partner relationship managementC. Employee relationship managementD. None of the above B. Partner relationship management
What provides Web-based self-service tools that streamline and automate the human resource department? A. Supplier relationship managementB. Partner relationship managementC. Employee relationship managementD. None of the above C. Employee relationship management
Which industries will want to keep using CRM as a major strategic focus in the future? A. Industries whose products are uniqueB. Industries whose products are difficult to differentiateC. Industries whose products are exclusiveD. Industries whose products are distinctive B. Industries whose products are difficult to differentiate
Which of the following is a common sales CRM metric? A. Number of new customersB. Number of marketing campaignsC. Average time to resolutionD. Cost per interaction by marketing campaign A. Number of new customers
Which of the following is a common customer service CRM metric? A. Number of new prospective customersB. Number of marketing campaignsC. Average time to resolutionD. Revenue generated by marketing campaigns C. Average time to resolution
Which of the following is a common marketing CRM metric? A. Number of new prospective customersB. Average number of service calls per dayC. Average time to resolutionD. Cost per interaction by marketing campaign D. Cost per interaction by marketing campaign
Which of the following will help an organization maintain consistent business operations? A. Marketing, sales, and accounting departments decide to use the same vendor for a new systemB. Sales decides to implement a new system without considering other departmentsC. A new office policy states that all managers can implement their own policies for purchasing supplies and materialsD. Marketing decides to save customer’s email addresses in the marketing system, even though other organizational systems do not have this capability A. Marketing, sales, and accounting departments decide to use the same vendor for a new system
What is the key word in ERP? A. EnterpriseB. ResourceC. PlanningD. All of the above A. Enterprise
What is enterprise resource planning? A. The analysis and redesign of workflow within and between enterprisesB. A standardized set of activities that accomplish as specific task, such as processing a customer’s orderC. Integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single IT system so that employees can make decisions by viewing enterprisewide information on all business operationsD. Involves managing all aspects of a customer’s relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organization’s profitability C. Integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single IT system so that employees can make decisions by viewing enterprisewide information on all business operations
Which of the following is a component ERP vendors offer to differentiate themselves in the marketplace? A. AccountingB. CRMC. SalesD. Human resources B. CRM
Which of the following is not one of the three most common core ERP components focusing on internal operations? A. Accounting and financeB. Production and materials managementC. Business intelligenceD. Human resources C. Business intelligence
Which activities do accounting and finance components perform? A. Track employee information including payroll, benefits, compensation, performance assessment, and assumes compliance with the legal requirements of multiple jurisdictions and tax authorities.B. Handle the various aspects of production planning and execution such as demand forecasting, production scheduling, job cost accounting, and quality control.C. Manage accounting data and financial processes within the enterprise with functions such as general ledger, accounts payable, accounts receivable, budgeting, and asset management.D. None of the above. C. Manage accounting data and financial processes within the enterprise with functions such as general ledger, accounts payable, accounts receivable, budgeting, and asset management.
Which activities do production and materials management components perform? A. Track employee information including payroll, benefits, compensation, performance assessment, and assumes compliance with the legal requirements of multiple jurisdictions and tax authorities.B. Handle the various aspects of production planning and execution such as demand forecasting, production scheduling, job cost accounting, and quality control.C. Manage accounting data and financial processes within the enterprise with functions such as general ledger, accounts payable, accounts receivable, budgeting, and asset management.D. None of the above. B. Handle the various aspects of production planning and execution such as demand forecasting, production scheduling, job cost accounting, and quality control.
Which activities do human resource components perform? A. Track employee information including payroll, benefits, compensation, performance assessment, and assumes compliance with the legal requirements of multiple jurisdictions and tax authorities.B. Handle the various aspects of production planning and execution such as demand forecasting, production scheduling, job cost accounting, and quality control.C. Manage accounting data and financial processes within the enterprise with functions such as general ledger, accounts payable, accounts receivable, budgeting, and asset management.D. None of the above. A. Track employee information including payroll, benefits, compensation, performance assessment, and assumes compliance with the legal requirements of multiple jurisdictions and tax authorities.
Which component is a credit-management feature typically included in? A. Accounting and finance componentsB. Production and managerial management componentsC. Human resource componentsD. Production and materials management components A. Accounting and finance components
Which component can help an organization determine such things as the identification of individuals who are likely to leave the company unless additional compensation or benefits are provided? A. Accounting and finance componentsB. Production and managerial management componentsC. Human resource componentsD. Production and materials management components C. Human resource components
Which of the following is an extended ERP component? A. Business intelligenceB. E-businessC. Customer relationship managementD. All of the above D. All of the above
Which extended ERP component collects information used throughout an organization, organizes it, and applies analytical tools to assist managers with decisions? A. Business intelligenceB. E-businessC. Customer relationship managementD. Supply chain management A. Business intelligence
What are two of the primary features of e-business components? A. E-procurementB. E-logisticsC. E-procurement and e-logisticsD. None of the above C. E-procurement and e-logistics
Which of the following describes an ERP system? A. ERP systems provide a foundation for collaboration between departmentsB. ERP systems enable people in different business areas to communicateC. ERP systems have been widely adopted in large organizations to store critical knowledge used to make the decisions that drive the organization’s performanceD. All of the above D. All of the above
What is at the heart of any ERP system? A. InformationB. EmployeesC. CustomersD. Database D. Database
Which of the following occurs when everyone involved in sourcing, producing, and delivering the company’s product works with the same information? A. Eliminates redundanciesB. Cuts down wasted timeC. Removes misinformationD. All of the above D. All of the above
Who are the primary users of SCM systems? A. Sales, marketing, customer serviceB. Accounting, finance, logistics, and productionC. Customers, resellers, partners, suppliers, and distributorsD. All of the above C. Customers, resellers, partners, suppliers, and distributors
What are the primary business benefits of an ERP system? A. Sales forecasts, sales strategies, and marketing campaignsB. Market demand, resource and capacity constraints, and real-time schedulingC. Forecasting, planning, purchasing, material management, warehousing, inventory, and distributionD. All of the above C. Forecasting, planning, purchasing, material management, warehousing, inventory, and distribution
Who are the primary users of ERP systems? A. Sales, marketing, customer serviceB. Accounting, finance, logistics, and productionC. Customers, resellers, partners, suppliers, and distributorsD. All of the above B. Accounting, finance, logistics, and production
Which application’s primary business benefits include sales forecasts, sales strategies, and marketing campaigns? A. CRMB. SCMC. ERPD. All of the above A. CRM
Which application’s primary business benefits include market demand, resource and capacity constraints, and real-time scheduling? A. CRMB. SCMC. ERPD. All of the above B. SCM
Which application’s primary business benefits include forecasting, planning, purchasing, material management, warehousing, inventory, and distribution? A. CRMB. SCMC. ERPD. All of the above C. ERP
The customers’ customer is upstream in the supply chain. False
Plan, source, make, deliver, and return are the five basic supply chain management components. True
Information technology’s primary role in supply chain management is creating the integrations or tight process and information linkages between functions within a firm-such as marketing, sales, finance, manufacturing, and distribution-and between firms. True
Effective and efficient supply chain management systems can enable an organization to decrease the power of its buyers. True
The Internet can completely replace the phone and face-to-face communications with customers. False
The primary difference between operational CRM and analytical CRM is the direct interaction between the organization and its suppliers. False
Back-office operations deal directly with the customer. False
RFM stands for Regency, Frequency, and Monetary. False
The evolution of CRM is reporting, analyzing, and predicting. True
List generators fall under the category of the sales department’s CRM tools. False
Contact management falls under the category of the customer service department’s CRM tools. False
Call scripting falls under the category of the sales department’s CRM tools. False
Production and materials management is a core ERP component. True
Business intelligence is both a core and extended ERP component. False
SCM, CRM, and ERP are all extended ERP components. False
E-logistics manage the transportation and storage of goods. True
Oracle and SAP are the biggest ERP vendors. True
In the past, departments made decisions independent of each other. True
When a user enters or updates information in one ERP module, it is immediately and automatically updated throughout the entire system. True

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