APUSH Chapter 31

Adkins vs. Children’s Hospital (1923) A supreme court case that reversed the ruling in Muller vs. Oregon, which had declared women to be deserving of special protection in the workplace, and was an example of the U.S. becoming more conservative.
Nine-Power Treaty (1922) Agreement coming out of the Washington “Disarment” Conference that pledged Belgium, Italy, Britain, Portugal, U.S, the Netherlands, Japan, China, and France to abide by the Open Door Policy.
Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) A sentimental triumph of the 1929s Peace Movement which linked 62 nations in the supposed “outlawry of war”. It was seen as a joke and was ineffective.
Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law (1922) Increased rates on European goods to America and protected domestic production from foreign competitors. As a direct result, many European nations were encouraged to increase their own trade barriers. This changed America and Europe’s relationship and is one of the causes of the Depression because it leads to overproduction and underconsumption. This was an example of America following the path to isolation.
Teapot Dome Scandal (1921) An affair involving the illegal lease of priceless naval oil reserves when the U.S. navy had reserves of oil that was given to companies for a bribe. Harding’s Secretary of State Albert B. Fall was involved in the scheme, which was one of several that gave Harding’s administration a reputation for corruption.
McNary-Haugen Bill (1924-1928) A farm relief bill that was championed throughout the 1920s and aimed to keep agricultural prices high by authorizing the government to buy up surpluses and sell them abroad to create a demand. It was designed to help farmers, who were suffering from their own depression or abundance right after World War I. Congress passed the bill twice but President Coolidge vetoed it both times.
Dawes Plan (1924) An arrangement negotiated to reschedule German reparation payments. The U.S. gave money to Germany to pay their reparations, hoping the other countries would pay their war debts to the U.S. with that money; however, America didn’t get payed. It stabilized the German currency and opened the way for further American private loans to Germany.
Agricultural Marketing Act (1929) Established the Federal Farm Board, which aimed to help farmers and meant to do the same thing as the McNary-Haugen Bill and buy up farmers’ surpluses. However, the board was unable to cope with the flood of farm produce to market and was therefore unsuccessful.
Agriculture Adjustment Act Paid farmers not to farm to lower the supply but was declared unconstitutional.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930) The highest Protective Tariff in the peacetime history of the U.S by raising taxes from 38% to 60%. It was an aspect of economic warfare with other countries. It made it impossible for other countries to sell their products to the US because the US was selling the same product for less money.
Black Tuesday The dark, panicky day of October 29, 1929 when over 16,410,000 shares of stock were sold on Wall Street. It was a trigger that helped bring on the Great Depression.
Hoovervilles Grim shantytowns where impoverished victims of the Great Depression slept under newspapers and in makeshift tents. Their visibility and sarcastic name tarnished the reputation of the Hoover Administration.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation (1932) A government lending agency established under the Hoover administration in order to assist insurance companies, banks, agricultural organizations, railroads, and local governments. It was a precursor to later agencies that grew out of the New Deal and symbolized a recognition by the Republicans and some federal action was required to address the Great Depression.
Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act (1932) Law that banned yellow dog, or antiunion, work contracts and forbade federal courts from issuing injunctions to quash strikes and boycotts. It was an early piece of labor-friendly federal legislation.
Bonus Army (1932) Officially known as the Bonus Expeditionary Force, this rag-tag group of 20,000 veterans marched on Washington to demand immediate payment on bonuses earned during World War I. General Douglas MacArthur dispersed the veterans with tear gas and bayonets.
Warren G. Harding One of the three Republican presidents who steered the US on a rollercoaster ride in the 1920s. A kind man with a mediocre mind, he was a perfect “front” for enterprising industrialists. His catchphrase was “we need to return to normalcy”. He passed the Budget Accounting Act and started the Washington Naval Conference. He was known for being involved in many scandals.
Albert B. Fall Senator of New Mexico and a scheming anticonservationalist who was appointed secretary of the interior by Harding. In 1921 he inducted his carless colleague, the secretary of the navy, to transfer the valuable properties from the Teapot Dome Scandal to the Interior Department.
Calvin Coolidge Vice President of Harding who came into office after Harding’s death. He lowered taxes twice, kept a tight rein on budget, and was economically ineffective as president.
John W. Davis A wealthy corporation lawyer connected with the wall street banking house of J.P Morgan and Company. He was the polished nominee of the election of 1924 and was no less conservative than Coolidge.
Alfred E. Smith Nominated by the Democrats in the 1928 election, he was a four-time governor of New York and one of the most colorful personalities in American politics. Many fundamentalist Democrats gagged on his candidacy.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *