Finance chapter 2

Which of the following is an exampple of a non-cash item on an income statement? Depreciation
Which if the following are componets of cash flow from assets? (3answers) – Change in net working capital- Capital spending- Operating cash flow
Liquidity has two dimentions which are the ability to: Quickly convert assets into cash without significant loss in value.
A balance sheet reflects a firm’s: (2 answers) – Accounting value on a specific date- Economic value at a specific time
Assets can be categorized as: (2 answers) – Current and fixed assets- Tangible and intangebal assets
The more debt a firm has, the greater its: – The degree of financial leverage
Rank the ease (from easiest to hardest) of turning the following assets into cash 1. Cash equivalents2. Accounts Receivable3. Inventory4. Plant and equipment
The price at which willing buyers and sellers would trade is called _____ value. Market
On a balance sheet, total assets must always equal total liabilities plus: shareholders’ equity
Which of these questions can be answered by reviewing a firm’s balance sheet? (2) – How much debt is used to finance the firm- What is the total amount of assets the firm owns
Physical assets are termed ______ assets. Tangible
The last item on the income statement is typically the _______. Net income
Net working capital equals ______. Current assets minus current liabilities
Operating cash flow: (2) – Is usually positive- Is a sign of trouble if negative
When is revenue recognized on an income statement? (2) – When the earnings process is virtually completed- When the exchange of goods or services is completed
Which of these questions can be answered by reviewing a firm’s balance sheet? – How much debt is used to finance the firm- What is the total amount of assets the firm owns
Financial leverage refers to a firm’s ______. Use of debt in its capital structure
Under GAAP, assets are generally carried on a firm’s balance sheet at _______. (2) – Historical cost- Book value
Depreciation is the accountant’s estimate of the cost of _______ used in the production process matched with the benefits produced from owning it. (2) – Equipment- Fixed assets
Stockholders’ equity is always shown on the ______ of the balance sheet – Right side
What does stockholders’ equity represent? A residual claim against the firm’s assets
Marginal tax rates are the most important tax rates because: (2) – Financial decisions are usually based on new cash flows- Incremental cash flows are taxed at marginal tax rates
On the balance sheet, assets are listed at their ______ value. Book
What is depreciation? A systematic expensing of an asset based on the asset’s estimated life.
If a firm’s current assets are $100 and its liabilities are $80, then its net working capital is: $20
For financial decision-making purposes, the most important tax is the ______ tax rate. Marginal
If you make an extra $1,000 in income and your marginal tax rate is 20%, then you will pay _____ in taxes on this extra income. $300
According to the originators of the U.S. corporate tax code, the only rates are: (4) – 34%- 35%- 25%- 15%
Changes in capital spending can be negative if The firm sold more assets than it purchased
Cash flow to stockholders equals _______. – Dividends paid minus net new equity raised
Which of the following are classified as liabilities on a firm’s balance sheet? (2) – Deferred taxes- Accounts payable
Long-term liabilities represent obligations of the firm lasting over ______. 1 year
Costs that do not change in the short run arise because of _______. Fixed commitments
Period costs are the costs that are allocated to a specific ______. Interval of time
What are two way in which financial accountants usually classify costs? – Period costs- Product costs
In accounting, operating cash flow is often simply defined as the simple sum of two income statement items: ________ and ________. Net income plus depreciation
What is the most important item that can be extracted from financial statements? The firm’s actual cash flows
The short run is a period when there are ______ costs. both fixed and variable
Which of the following are classified as fixed assets on the balance sheet? (3) – Buildings- Patents- Trademarks
What should you keep in mind when examining an income statement? (3) – GAAP- Cash versus non-cash items- Time and costs
Non-cash items are expenses that directly affect ______ but do not directly affect _______. Net income; cash flow
What is the purpose of the income statement? To measure performance over a set period of time
The GAAP matching principal requires revenues to be matched with: Expenses
Who is entitled to the residual value of a firm’s cash flows? Shareholders
The cash flow identity states that cash flow from assets equals cash flows to _____. Creditors and equity investors
Cash flow to creditors equals: Interest paid minus net new borrowing
The short run is ______. An imprecise period of time
Net capital spending is equal to the change in net fixed assets plus: Depreciation
Which one of these is considered to be the most liquid?- Land- Equipment and machines- Accounts receivable- Inventory Accounts Receivable
Shareholders’ equity equals ______. Assets minus liabilities
A company’s _______ tax rate is its tax bill divided by its total taxable income, and its _____ tax rate is the tax rate it pays on the next dollar of income. average; marginal
______ costs change as the output of the firm changes. Variable
The cash flow identity states that cash from ______ should equal cash flows to creditors and equity investors. Assets
The _______ principle of GAAP states that costs associated with a good or service should be recorded at the same time as the revenue from selling that good or service. Matching
In the long-run, costs may be considered as _______. All variable
Non-cash items do not affect _______. Cash flow
In finance, the value of a firm depends on its ability to generate ______. Cash flows
Non-cash items are _____ that _____ cash flow. Expenses; do not directly affect
When a firm smooths earnings to please investors, it is called ________. Earnings management
If dividends are $100, stock sold is $10, and stock repurchased is $25, what is the cash flow to stockholders? $115
If ending net fixed assets are $100, beginning net fixed assets are $60, and depreciation is $10, then the change in capital spending is ______. $50

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