APUSH The American Pageant Chapter 32 vocab

(Warren) Harding President of the United States from 1921 to 1923. This Republican man, though good-natured himself, surrounded himself with a few shady characters who tainted his presidency. Believed in a quasi-laissez-faire economic policy. Died of illness in 1923.
Adkins v Children’s Hospital (1923) In this court case, the Supreme Court reversed its own reasoning in Muller v. Oregon, on the grounds that women were now the legal equals of men (after the Nineteenth Amendment).
Washington Naval Conference (1921-22) A conference hosted by the US which called for US and British de-fortification of Far East possessions (though Japan could fortify all it wanted). Also called for general naval disarmament.
Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) A rather idealistic agreement between the great world powers to never engage in war except for defensive purposes.
Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922) Raised tariff from 27% to 35%, Duties on farm produce increased. Passed during the Harding Administration.
Teapot Dome Scandal (1923) A horrible political scandal involving the private bribery of Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall in exchange for government oileries. Up to that point, it was considered the worst political scandal in American History.
(Calvin) Coolidge President of the United States from 1923 to 1929. Became president when Harding died of pneumonia. This man was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words, and acquired the name “Silent Cal” for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist. Believed in the government supporting big business.
Progressive Party Revived political party that ran Robert La Follette in the Election of 1924. This group believed in a more pro-labor policy, especially in the supporting of economically downtrodden farmers. It received a fairly large percentage of votes for a third party.
Dawes Plan (1924) This loan program was crafted to give money to Germany so that they could pay war reparations and lessen the financial crisis in Europe; the program ended with the 1929 stock market crash.
(Herbert) Hoover President of the United States from 1929 to 1933. Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.
(Alfred) Smith He was the Democratic presidential candidate in the 1928 election. He was the first Catholic to be elected as a candidate. Had too many “problems” to win against Hoover.
Agricultural Marketing Act (1929) This act provided for a form of relief for farmers by creating a Federal Farm Board, which was designed to stabilize farm crop prices. lost over $150 billion
Federal Farm Board Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture; it offered farmers insurance against loss of crops due to drought; flood; or freeze. It did not guarantee profit or cover losses due to bad farming.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930) Raised tariffs to an unprecedented level and worsened the depression by raising prices and discouraging foreign trade.
Stock Market Crash (1929) Plunge in stock market prices that marked the beginning of the Great Depression
“Black Tuesday” (10/29/29) Name given to the fatal crash of 1929.
Hoovervilles Sneering name given to the shantytowns that sprang up during the depression.
rugged individualism The belief that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal. Popularly said by Herbert Hoover.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation (1932) This agency became a government lending bank. It was designed to provide indirect relief by assisting insurance companies, banks, agricultural organizations, and railroads.
“Bonus Army” (BEF) (1932) Name given to the mass of struggling WWI vets who, in the face of hard economic times, wanted to collect their pay checks early.
Manchurian Crisis (1931) In 1931 the Japanese stage-managed an attack on the Japanese owned Manchurian railway by “Chinese bandits.” To protect their interests the Japanese army took control of the whole region. Both China and Japan appealed to the League of Nations to arbitrate.
Stimson Doctrine (1932) American foreign policy that stated that the US would not formally recognize any territories that were seized by force.
Good Neighbor Policy FDR’s foreign policy of promoting better relations with Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region.

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